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Single Particle Colliders

Single particle colliders use particles that have a known spatial wavefunction and thus extremely low emittance (ΔxΔp~ħ/2).

- - - [Physics] - - -

    // Planck energy scale

Original idea came from investigating the ultimate limits of colliders at the F3iA meeting in 2016. Sufficient control over the spatial position of about 1012 particles of 10-6 EPlanck would allow a black hole to be formed, which would in turn evaporate via Hawking radiation to give near-Planck-energy particles.

This would require exotic laser acceleration at near the Schwinger limit. Other physics effects such as synchrotron radiation would also tend to disperse the particle positions unless compensated for, some outline methods for this are given in an IPAC'18 paper and talk.

    // Nuclear energy scale

An example that can be realised with closer to present-day technology is a single particle collider at a few MeV, in which two or more nuclei are momentarily confined to within the nuclear radius of 10-14m. This would result in a high probability of fusion reactions, including those with three or more input products, which might give access to high-density processes seen in supernovae and neutron star collisions.  Beam colliders have trouble making more than 2-way collisions because the bunches of nuclei are diffuse relative to the nuclear radius.  Nuclei on the island of relative stability may be accessible using these processes, for instance Przybylski's Star contains short-lived actinides theorised to be from such an element.  Other unusual configurations of nuclear matter may be produced using this process as it allows each nucleus to be placed in a defined (rather than random) location.

- - - [Components] - - -

For the nuclear energy scale single particle collider, the main components would be (briefly):

- - - [Simulations] - - -

    // 2D simulations of interaction point

Transverse simulations of the particle wavefunction approaching the interaction point, including spherical aberration etc. (no paraxial approximation made).  The wavefunction is treated as a classical distribution while its size is large enough that diffractive effects are insignificant.  A series of multipoles is allowed before the interaction point in each direction, while an optimiser adjusts them to minimise the size of the colliding wavefunction.  First part of animations show the effect of the optimisation process on the wavefunction spatial distribution, while zooming in as necessary.  Finally the propagation towards the interaction point is shown as an animation.

Five multipole elements on each side are allowed, up to 20-pole.

Four elements, up to 16-pole (no zooming).

Three elements, up to 24-pole.

Three elements, up to dodecapole (result only).

Two elements, up to octupole (result only).

Two elements, up to quadrupole (result only).  This shows the strength of aberration without correction.

- - - [Future Work] - - -

This page is really just a placeholder for the above animations, but for context, further steps that need to be done are listed below:

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